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The flip of a coin determines whether a new city in Oregon is named after Boston, Massachusetts , or Portland, Maine , with Portland winning.

A family of Brewsterite pioneers traveling a southern route to California is massacred by Indians on the banks of the Gila River in what is now Arizona.

Thirteen-year-old Olive Oatman and her eight-year-old sister Mary Ann are abducted and enslaved. Congress passes the Appropriation Bill for Indian Affairs , which allocates funds to move western Native American tribes on to permanent reservations enclosed and protected by the federal government.

The act sets the precedent for modern reservations in the United States. Mariposa Battalion, led by James D. Savage , are the first reported non-natives to enter California's Yosemite Valley.

Fort Union is established in the New Mexico Territory. The Wells Fargo company is founded to provide express and banking services to California.

Levi Strauss arrives in San Francisco and opens a store supplying goods and clothing to Gold Rush miners. The Washington Territory is organized from a portion of the Oregon Territory.

Fort Riley is established in what is now Kansas. In the case of Holmes v. Ford , a decision of the Oregon Territorial Supreme Court reaffirms that slavery is illegal in the Oregon Territory, concluding the last challenge of abolitionist law by pro-slavery elements living in Oregon.

Paiute Indians attack U. Army Captain John W. Gunnison and his party of 37 soldiers and railroad surveyors near Sevier Lake, Utah. The Mexican army forces would-be conqueror William Walker and his mercenary troops to retreat to Sonora.

Texas is linked by telegraph with the rest of the country when a connection between New Orleans and Marshall, Texas is completed.

A provision that settlers will vote on the legality of slavery in the new territories effectively rescinds the Missouri Compromise of and touches off an epidemic of violence and electoral fraud beginning the next year.

Omaha City is founded in the Nebraska Territory. An argument over a stray cow precipitates the Grattan massacre , in which 30 U. Army soldiers and an interpreter are killed in retaliation for the shooting of Chief Conquering Bear of the Lakota Sioux.

Jonathan R. Davis , a veteran of the Mexican—American War and a gold rush prospector, single-handedly kills eleven armed immigrant outlaws near Sacramento, California using two revolvers and a Bowie knife.

The first permanent bridge across the Mississippi River opens for traffic in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Army detachments under Brigadier General William S.

The city of Dallas is incorporated in Texas. The predominantly abolitionist town of Lawrence, Kansas is ransacked and looted by a pro-slavery militia.

Outraged at the sacking of Lawrence, abolitionist John Brown and a party of Free-Staters murder five pro-slavery activists in rural Kansas Territory in the Pottawatomie massacre.

In the three months of retaliatory raids and murders that follow, more than two dozen people are killed, marking the bloodiest episode of the Bleeding Kansas era.

Crabb leads a filibustering expedition into Sonora to aid Mexican rebels fighting government forces.

The rebels turn on the Americans after they cross the border and Crabb's entire army is executed. The Battle of Pima Butte , in what is now Arizona, is the last major battle fought solely between indigenous peoples in North America.

Nearly emigrants passing through the Utah Territory are massacred by a combined force of Mormon militiamen and Paiute Indians during the hysteria of the Utah War.

Chief Leschi , a leader of the Nisqually people , is hanged by the territorial government of Washington after being wrongfully convicted of killing a colonel during the Puget Sound War.

An army of Texas Rangers and Indian allies under the command of John Salmon Ford engages Comanche warriors in a series of battles after attacking villages in the Canadian River valley, the final actions of the Antelope Hills expedition.

Gold is discovered in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. The resulting gold rush draws nearly , people to the Pike's Peak Country of present-day Colorado over the next three years.

The Comstock Lode , the first major discovery of silver ore in the country, provokes a silver rush in present-day Nevada that funds boomtowns including Virginia City and Gold Hill.

Mexican folk hero Juan Cortina and a large posse seize control of Brownsville, Texas in one of the major actions of the First Cortina War. His motivation is the legal abuses perpetrated by Texan authorities against ethnic Mexicans.

The occupation only lasts two days, but the Cortina Troubles continue for another two years. Hundreds of Wiyot people are massacred by white settlers along the coast of what is now Humboldt County, California.

The Pony Express completes its first westbound and eastbound deliveries between St. Joseph, Missouri and San Francisco, California. Kansas is admitted to the Union as the 34th U.

A series of hostilities involving U. Army Lt. A convention of the Texas legislature votes to secede from the Union.

Colorado is organized as a U. The Nevada Territory and Dakota Territory are organized. Governor of Texas Sam Houston is evicted from office for refusing to take an oath of loyalty to the Confederate States of America.

Lynde is relieved of duty after abandoning his post. The first transcontinental telegraph line is completed near Fort Bridger in present-day Wyoming , the result of an effort by Hiram Sibley and Western Union to connect California to the telegraph networks of the east.

The ability to instantaneously send messages from coast to coast immediately makes the Pony Express obsolete.

Months of record precipitation in the far west culminate in the Great Flood of , which turns California's Central Valley into an inland sea and causes millions of dollars in property damage.

Their goals include seizing the Colorado gold fields and securing roads by which to invade California and Mexico.

It marks a turning point in the New Mexico Campaign in favor of the Union. William P. Calloway of the California Column and Confederate 2nd Lt.

Jack Swilling. James Barrett and a detachment of Arizona Confederates led by Sgt. Henry Holmes. It is often cited as the westernmost battle of the American Civil War , occurring 50 miles northwest of Tucson.

Confederate Sgt. The Second Battle of Dragoon Springs is fought in retaliation for the deaths of the four Confederates killed at the Apache ambush four days earlier.

Rebels under Capt. Sherod Hunter take back the cattle stolen by Cochise and his warriors and kill five Apaches.

It aims to encourage settlement in the West by simplifying the process of land acquisition: homesteaders need only claim, occupy for five years, and improve a minimum of acres of unappropriated land to be granted full ownership.

Alternatively, settlers have the option of purchasing the land outright after six months of residency. It is one of the first battles in which the United States Army is able to effectively use artillery against Indians.

Fort Bowie is built near the site following the battle. The Dakota War of begins when a Sioux hunting party slaughters five white settlers and the tribal council decides to attack white settlements throughout the Minnesota River valley.

More than Santee Sioux in Minnesota are sentenced to hang for the rape and murder of white settlers. Daniel Freeman submits the first claim under the Homestead Act of for land near Beatrice, Nebraska.

Chiricahua Apache leader Mangas Coloradas is captured, tortured, and killed by U. Idaho is organized as a U. Confederate guerrillas led by William Quantrill set fire to the pro-Union town of Lawrence, Kansas and kill nearly civilians in the Lawrence massacre.

Quantrill claims his motive was revenge for the Sacking of Osceola several years earlier. John Bozeman leads a group of about 2, settlers along the Bozeman Trail , a new cutoff route connecting the Oregon Trail with the gold fields of southwestern Montana , which he and John Jacobs had blazed the previous year.

Colonel Kit Carson accepts the surrender of most of the Navajo nation after the final two years of the bloody Navajo Wars.

Montana is organized as a U. Outlaw Jim Reynolds and his gang plunder and rob settlements in the South Park Basin of the Colorado Territory in an attempt to loot the gold mines of the region to support the fledgling Confederacy.

Pro-Confederate bushwhackers led by William "Bloody Bill" Anderson capture and execute 24 unarmed Union soldiers at a rail depot in Centralia, Missouri.

Union General Samuel R. The battle ends the last major Confederate offensive west of the Mississippi River. The largest engagement in the Trans-Mississippi Theater , with over 30, men involved, it is sometimes called the "Gettysburg of the West".

Colonel John Chivington and his volunteer militia massacre a peaceful Cheyenne village near Sand Creek in the Colorado Territory , in what is later called the Sand Creek massacre.

Fort Buchanan is overrun and destroyed by Chiricahua warriors in the Arizona Territory. It is the final armed engagement of the American Civil War.

Stand Watie , a Cherokee cavalry commander in the Confederate Army , becomes the last Confederate general to surrender to Union forces, at Doaksville in the Indian Territory.

The confrontation is sensationalized in Harper's Magazine , making Hickok a household name. It is often considered the archetypal one-on-one quick-draw duel , which later becomes a popular image of the Old West.

The period of the great cattle drives begins when Texas ranchers drive more than , head of cattle to assorted markets. Some travel east to Louisiana, where the animals are shipped to Cairo, Illinois and St.

Captain William J. Fetterman and 80 soldiers of the U. A fort built the next year, Fort Fetterman , is named in his honor. Lucien B. Smith of Kent, Ohio is issued the first patent for barbed wire fencing, an invention which revolutionizes cattle ranching on the open prairies of the West.

In the Wagon Box Fight , a small party of U. Army soldiers and civilians near Fort Phil Kearny, armed with new rapid-fire breech-loading rifles and encircled by a wall of wagon boxes, manages to hold off hundreds of Lakota warriors led by Red Cloud and Crazy Horse.

Army on Castle Hill. It is organized on the same day into the Department of Alaska , to be administered by the Army.

The Medicine Lodge Treaty is signed between the U. It results in the abandonment of U. Wyoming is organized as a U. The Battle of Washita River is fought when Lt.

Chief Black Kettle , leader of the Cheyenne, is killed. Fort Sill is established by General Philip H. Sheridan in the Indian Territory , near present-day Lawton, Oklahoma.

John Wesley Powell and nine others embark on a scientific expedition that charts more than miles of the Green River and Colorado River through the canyon country of Wyoming , Colorado , Utah , and Arizona.

Powell and his crew become the first recorded white men to travel the length of the Grand Canyon. They reach the mouth of the Virgin River in present-day Nevada on August The world's first documented competitive rodeo is held in the town of Deer Trail in the Colorado Territory.

Wyoming becomes the first U. William "Hurricane Bill" Martin, a notorious outlaw in Kansas , begins rustling cattle southeast of Abilene before he and his gang are driven off by a posse from Marion.

According to local newspapers, Allison is reported to have killed as many as fifteen men in gunfights during this time.

With the growing railroad industry and cattle boom, buffalo hunters begin moving onto the Great Plains.

In less than ten years, the buffalo population is dramatically reduced, and the animal remains an endangered species for much of the next century.

Over the next several decades, this provides Mormons with an added margin of political power. More than men, women, and children belonging to a friendly band of Piegan Blackfeet Indians are mistakenly attacked and massacred by a U.

Army command on the Marias River in the Montana Territory. Texas is readmitted to the Union following the Civil War.

With the emergence of Abilene, Kansas as a major stopover for cattle ranchers, the town trustees attempt to curb the violence brought by the beginning of the cattle season by banning guns within town limits.

This proves extremely unpopular and unenforceable, as Texas cowboys make a habit of shooting up ordinance posters and tear down the city's first jailhouse; violence continues in the city until the appointment of Tom "Bear River" Smith as city marshal on June 4.

John K. It is during this time that Fisher becomes known as a skilled gunfighter. After a long illness, U.

Army Captain John Barry is forced into retirement. While stationed at Fort Ord , Barry attempts to improve relations between the United States and the Apaches , as well as encourages the enlistment of scouts to combat renegade Apaches.

John Younger kills Captain S. Nichols in a gunfight in Dallas, Texas. Bullard is shot and killed when he approaches a wounded Apache warrior.

Army soldiers led by scout Lee Stewart and U. Marshal Jack Bridges, who claimed to have a warrant for his arrest. Death of Navajo chieftain Barboncito Hastin Daagii.

In what becomes known as the Camp Grant Massacre , over Apache women and children are killed by a mob of Mexicans and Papago Indians led by several Tucson businessmen, including D.

Bennett and Sam Hughes. Bennett and several others are indicted in December, though all are acquitted. After an incident with gunfighter John Wesley Hardin over Hardin's insistence on wearing his gun in public, Carson is hired briefly as deputy in Newton, Kansas before returning to Abilene in November.

Carson and Deputy John W. Shortly after robbing a nearby bank, Jesse James addresses a crowd at a political rally in Corydon, Iowa.

Professional gambler Phil Coe is involved in a shootout with Abilene City Marshal "Wild Bill" Hickok after Hickok attempts to censor a painting of a bull with abnormally large genitals in Coe's saloon.

Deputy Mike Williams is killed when Hickok accidentally shoots him, and Coe dies from his wounds four days later.

William F. Later that year, he and fellow scout John "Texas Jack" Omohundro appear on stage for the first time, portraying themselves in "Scouts of the Prairie".

Ellsworth, Kansas succeeds Abilene as the northern stopping point on the Old Texas cattle trail. Following the completion of the Santa Fe Railroad across the border of the Colorado Territory , the use of the Santa Fe Trail begins to decline, although Dodge City remains a major cattle town for the next decade.

The Santa Fe Railroad also completes a rail line at Wichita, Kansas , causing a major population boom in the town over the next several years.

Yellowstone is designated America's first national park by President Ulysses S. The Battle of Lost River results when the U. In the subsequent Modoc War , a party of 53 Modoc warriors entrenched in the Lava Beds of northern California manages to hold off hundreds of U.

The Colt Single Action Army revolver is first manufactured. A follow-up to the Homestead Act of , it permits homesteaders to claim acres of public land on which they have planted and maintained at least 40 acres of timber for a minimum of 10 years.

A combined force of U. Brewster M. Higley , is first published in an issue of the Smith County Pioneer. It is set to music by Daniel E.

Kelley and evolves into the classic western folk song " Home on the Range ", which is later adopted as the state song of Kansas.

John Younger is killed when he and his brother Jim assault two undercover Pinkerton detectives and a local sheriff in St. Clair County, Missouri. While occupying an old trading post in the Texas panhandle , 28 bison hunters including year-old Bat Masterson are besieged by Comanche warriors at the Second Battle of Adobe Walls.

An expedition led by Lt. The expedition discovers placer gold , prompting a gold rush which draws thousands of settlers to the region over the next few years and thereby antagonizes the native Sioux inhabitants.

The 4th U. Cavalry under Col. Ranald S. Joseph Glidden patents a type of barbed wire he calls "The Winner", which becomes one of the most popular types in the country.

His design is modified from a version patented by Henry B. Rose that was displayed at a county fair in Glidden's hometown of DeKalb, Illinois.

Pinkerton agents throw an incendiary device into Jesse James ' family home in Kearney, Missouri , killing James' 9-year-old half-brother and badly wounding his mother.

After being wounded in the hip during a gunfight in Sweetwater, Texas , Bat Masterson agrees to become assistant city marshal of Dodge City, Kansas.

The defeat convinces Crook to withdraw from his planned offensive and await reinforcements. While leading an attack into a Sioux village in the Montana Territory , the U.

Several members of the James—Younger Gang , including Cole Younger , are captured after the failed robbery of the First National Bank leads to a gunfight with bank employees and local residents in Northfield, Minnesota.

In the first U. Crazy Horse surrenders to the U. Anticipating retaliation for recent crimes against white settlers and reluctant to move to a reservation, about Nez Perce Indians led by Chief Joseph , Ollokot , and White Bird begin a long retreat from western Idaho with the U.

Army in pursuit. John Gibbon. Cahill dies the following day. Four months after his surrender, Oglala war leader Crazy Horse is fatally stabbed with a bayonet by a U.

Army soldier while allegedly resisting imprisonment at Fort Robinson. Prospector Ed Schieffelin files his first mining claim after discovering silver ore on a high plateau between the San Pedro River and the Dragoon Mountains in southeastern Arizona Territory.

He names his stake "Tombstone". Army under Generals Oliver O. Howard and Nelson A. Miles , ending the Nez Perce War.

In the San Elizario Salt War , years of legal conflict over the application of individual mineral rights to traditionally community-held salt lakes near the Guadalupe Mountains reach a climax when a detachment of Texas Rangers surrenders to a popular army of Tejano citizens following a four-day siege in the town of San Elizario, Texas.

More than a dozen people are killed in the exchange. The town of Leadville is incorporated in Colorado. Nick Worthington, a well-known outlaw throughout New Mexico and Colorado, is killed by residents of Cimarron, New Mexico after killing several men and stealing horses.

Captain Marcus Reno , the highest-ranking officer to have survived the Battle of the Little Bighorn , is brought before a general court-martial but is acquitted of cowardice.

The Utes besiege a U. Army detachment in the Battle of Milk Creek until it is relieved by troops under Col.

Wesley Merritt on October 5. George Alford is sentenced to five years imprisonment for murdering a sheriff in Fort Worth, Texas.

James Allen kills James Moorehead after ordering eggs in a tavern in Las Vegas, New Mexico and, after escaping from prison for Moorehead's murder, is killed by a posse.

The Tombstone Epitaph prints its first issue in Tombstone, Arizona. It remains the oldest continuously published newspaper in the state. A dispute over land titles between settlers of California 's San Joaquin Valley and the Southern Pacific Railroad leaves seven people dead in what is later called the Mussel Slough Tragedy.

Abran Baca kills A. Conklin in Socorro, New Mexico with several other outlaws, though he is acquitted the following year. The city of Phoenix is incorporated in the Arizona Territory.

A gunfight involving El Paso, Texas Marshal Dallas Stoudenmire results in what witnesses recall as " four dead in five seconds ".

He is buried the next day between his friends Tom O'Folliard and Charlie Bowdre in the town's old military cemetery.

Though the matter is settled by tribal custom, Crow Dog is sentenced to death under the laws of the Dakota Territory , only to be freed by a decision of the U.

Supreme Court. The Gunfight at the O. San Jose, California becomes the first city west of the Rocky Mountains with civic electric lighting when a foot-tall moonlight tower is illuminated downtown.

Morgan Earp is shot and killed while playing billiards in Tombstone, Arizona. His assassination is linked to his involvement in the Gunfight at the O.

Jesse James is shot in the back of the head by Robert Ford , a new recruit to his gang, at his home in St.

Joseph, Missouri. President Chester A. Arthur signs the Chinese Exclusion Act , which effects a near-complete ban on Chinese immigration and naturalization in the United States.

The law is especially significant for the burgeoning railroad and mining industries in the West, which had previously relied largely on low-wage Chinese labor.

Though the original act is set to expire in ten years, it is renewed in and again in Chaffee and Andrew W. The Southern section of the second transcontinental railroad line is completed.

Thanks for helping! Share another experience before you go. Full view. Best nearby. Lukut Muzium Muzium Lukut. Get to know the area.

Fish Feeding on board Dickson Dragon. Salt Water Jacuzzi net is lowered into the sea. We recommend guests to soak themselves in the Salt Water Jacuzzi while the boat is moving.

Karaoke is available on board and it is Free of Charge. More info. Write a review. Traveller rating.

Selected filters. Kerol M wrote a review Dec Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 12 contributions 2 helpful votes. Not too bad not too good. Suitable for kids.

Staff really helpful and friendly but have to follow the schedule. After 1 then 2 then 3. Kids bugging to ride the train but we have to finish the ships and merry go round first.

Went there on weekdays so we are the only people there. Though anti-sodomy laws were common in the Old West, they often were only selectively enforced.

The traditions of the working cowboy were further etched into the minds of the general public with the development of Wild West Shows in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which showcased and romanticized the life of both cowboys and Native Americans.

In some cases, the cowboy and the violent gunslinger are often associated with one another. On the other hand, some actors who portrayed cowboys promoted positive values, such as the "cowboy code" of Gene Autry , that encouraged honorable behavior, respect and patriotism.

DeArment draws a connection between the popularized Western code and the stereotypical rowdy cowboy image to that of the "subculture of violence" of drovers in Old West Texas, that was influenced itself by the Southern code duello.

Likewise, cowboys in movies were often shown fighting with American Indians. However most armed conflicts occurred between Native people and cavalry units of the U.

Relations between cowboys and Native Americans were varied but generally not particularly friendly.

In the s, for example, the Comanche created problems in Western Texas. In reality, working ranch hands past and present had very little time for anything other than the constant, hard work involved in maintaining a ranch.

The history of women in the west, and women who worked on cattle ranches in particular, is not as well documented as that of men.

However, institutions such as the National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame have made significant efforts in recent years to gather and document the contributions of women.

There are few records mentioning girls or women working to drive cattle up the cattle trails of the Old West.

However women did considerable ranch work, and in some cases especially when the men went to war or on long cattle drives ran them. There is little doubt that women, particularly the wives and daughters of men who owned small ranches and could not afford to hire large numbers of outside laborers, worked side by side with men and thus needed to ride horses and be able to perform related tasks.

The largely undocumented contributions of women to the west were acknowledged in law; the western states led the United States in granting women the right to vote, beginning with Wyoming in While impractical for everyday work, the sidesaddle was a tool that gave women the ability to ride horses in "respectable" public settings instead of being left on foot or confined to horse-drawn vehicles.

Following the Civil War , Charles Goodnight modified the traditional English sidesaddle, creating a western-styled design. The traditional charras of Mexico preserve a similar tradition and ride sidesaddles today in charreada exhibitions on both sides of the border.

It wasn't until the advent of Wild West Shows that "cowgirls" came into their own. These adult women were skilled performers, demonstrating riding, expert marksmanship, and trick roping that entertained audiences around the world.

Women such as Annie Oakley became household names. By , skirts split for riding astride became popular, and allowed women to compete with the men without scandalizing Victorian Era audiences by wearing men's clothing or, worse yet, bloomers.

In the movies that followed from the early 20th century on, cowgirls expanded their roles in the popular culture and movie designers developed attractive clothing suitable for riding Western saddles.

Independently of the entertainment industry, the growth of rodeo brought about the rodeo cowgirl. In the early Wild West shows and rodeos, women competed in all events, sometimes against other women, sometimes with the men.

Cowgirls such as Fannie Sperry Steele rode the same "rough stock" and took the same risks as the men and all while wearing a heavy split skirt that was more encumbering than men's trousers and competed at major rodeos such as the Calgary Stampede and Cheyenne Frontier Days.

Rodeo competition for women changed in the s due to several factors. After , when Eastern promoters started staging indoor rodeos in places like Madison Square Garden, women were generally excluded from the men's events and many of the women's events were dropped.

Also, the public had difficulties with seeing women seriously injured or killed, and in particular, the death of Bonnie McCarroll at the Pendleton Round-Up led to the elimination of women's bronc riding from rodeo competition.

In today's rodeos, men and women compete equally together only in the event of team roping , though technically women now could enter other open events.

There also are all-women rodeos where women compete in bronc riding , bull riding and all other traditional rodeo events. However, in open rodeos, cowgirls primarily compete in the timed riding events such as barrel racing , and most professional rodeos do not offer as many women's events as men's events.

Boys and girls are more apt to compete against one another in all events in high-school rodeos as well as O-Mok-See competition, where even boys can be seen in traditionally "women's" events such as barrel racing.

Outside of the rodeo world, women compete equally with men in nearly all other equestrian events, including the Olympics , and western riding events such as cutting , reining , and endurance riding.

Today's working cowgirls generally use clothing, tools and equipment indistinguishable from that of men, other than in color and design, usually preferring a flashier look in competition.

Sidesaddles are only seen in exhibitions and a limited number of specialty horse show classes. A modern working cowgirl wears jeans, close-fitting shirts, boots, hat, and when needed, chaps and gloves.

If working on the ranch, they perform the same chores as cowboys and dress to suit the situation. Geography, climate and cultural traditions caused differences to develop in cattle-handling methods and equipment from one part of the United States to another.

The period between and marked a mingling of cultures when English and French-descended people began to settle west of the Mississippi River and encountered the Spanish-descended people who had settled in the parts of Mexico that later became Texas and California.

Less well-known but equally distinct traditions also developed in Hawaii and Florida. Today, the various regional cowboy traditions have merged to some extent, though a few regional differences in equipment and riding style still remain, and some individuals choose to deliberately preserve the more time-consuming but highly skilled techniques of the pure vaquero or "buckaroo" tradition.

The popular "horse whisperer" style of natural horsemanship was originally developed by practitioners who were predominantly from California and the Northwestern states, clearly combining the attitudes and philosophy of the California vaquero with the equipment and outward look of the Texas cowboy.

The vaquero, the Spanish or Mexican cowboy who worked with young, untrained horses, arrived in the 18th century and flourished in California and bordering territories during the Spanish Colonial period.

The California vaquero or buckaroo, unlike the Texas cowboy, was considered a highly skilled worker, who usually stayed on the same ranch where he was born or had grown up and raised his own family there.

In addition, the geography and climate of much of California was dramatically different from that of Texas, allowing more intensive grazing with less open range, plus cattle in California were marketed primarily at a regional level, without the need nor, until much later, even the logistical possibility to be driven hundreds of miles to railroad lines.

Thus, a horse- and livestock-handling culture remained in California and the Pacific Northwest that retained a stronger direct Spanish influence than that of Texas.

The modern distinction between vaquero and buckaroo within American English may also reflect the parallel differences between the California and Texas traditions of western horsemanship.

Some cowboys of the California tradition were dubbed buckaroos by English-speaking settlers. The words "buckaroo" and vaquero are still used on occasion in the Great Basin , parts of California and, less often, in the Pacific Northwest.

Elsewhere, the term "cowboy" is more common. The word buckaroo is generally believed to be an anglicized version of vaquero and shows phonological characteristics compatible with that origin.

In the 18th century, the residents of Spanish Texas began to herd cattle on horseback to sell in Louisiana, both legally and illegally. In , Stephen F.

Austin led a group which became the first English-speaking Mexican citizens. Here the settlers were strongly influenced by the Mexican vaquero culture, borrowing vocabulary and attire from their counterparts, [85] but also retaining some of the livestock-handling traditions and culture of the Eastern United States and Great Britain.

The Texas cowboy was typically a bachelor who hired on with different outfits from season to season. Following the American Civil War , vaquero culture combined with the cattle herding and drover traditions of the southeastern United States that evolved as settlers moved west.

Additional influences developed out of Texas as cattle trails were created to meet up with the railroad lines of Kansas and Nebraska , in addition to expanding ranching opportunities in the Great Plains and Rocky Mountain Front , east of the Continental Divide.

This led to modifications in the bridling and bitting traditions used by the vaquero. Historian Terry Jordan proposed in that some Texan traditions that developed—particularly after the Civil War—may trace to colonial South Carolina, as most settlers to Texas were from the southeastern United States.

The Florida "cowhunter" or " cracker cowboy" of the 19th and early 20th centuries was distinct from the Texas and California traditions.

Florida cowboys did not use lassos to herd or capture cattle. Their primary tools were bullwhips and dogs. Since the Florida cowhunter did not need a saddle horn for anchoring a lariat , many did not use Western saddles , instead using a McClellan saddle.

While some individuals wore boots that reached above the knees for protection from snakes , others wore brogans. They usually wore inexpensive wool or straw hats, and used ponchos for protection from rain.

Cattle and horses were introduced into Florida in the 16th century. Augustine and markets in Cuba. Raids into Spanish Florida by the Province of Carolina and its Native American allies, which wiped out the native population of Florida, led to the collapse of the Spanish mission and ranching systems.

In the 18th century, Creek , Seminole , and other Indian people moved into the depopulated areas of Florida and started herding the cattle left from the Spanish ranches.

In the 19th century, most tribes in the area were dispossessed of their land and cattle and pushed south or west by white settlers and the United States government.

By the middle of the 19th century white ranchers were running large herds of cattle on the extensive open range of central and southern Florida.

The hides and meat from Florida cattle became such a critical supply item for the Confederacy during the American Civil War that a unit of Cow Cavalry was organized to round up and protect the herds from Union raiders.

The Florida cowhunter or cracker cowboy tradition gradually assimilated to western cowboy tradition during the 20th century although the vaquero tradition has had little influence in Florida.

Texas tick fever and the screw-worm were introduced to Florida in the early 20th century by cattle entering from other states.

These pests forced Florida cattlemen to separate individual animals from their herds at frequent intervals for treatment, which eventually led to the widespread use of lassos.

Florida cowboys continue to use dogs and bullwhips for controlling cattle. The Hawaiian cowboy, the paniolo , is also a direct descendant of the vaquero of California and Mexico.

Paniolo, like cowboys on the mainland of North America, learned their skills from Mexican vaqueros. Captain George Vancouver brought cattle and sheep in as a gift to Kamehameha I , monarch of the Hawaiian Kingdom.

For 10 years, Kamehameha forbade killing of cattle, and imposed the death penalty on anyone who violated his edict. As a result, numbers multiplied astonishingly, and were wreaking havoc throughout the countryside.

By the reign of Kamehameha III the number of wild cattle were becoming a problem, so in he sent an emissary to California, then still a part of Mexico.

He was impressed with the skill of the vaqueros, and invited three to Hawai'i to teach the Hawaiian people how to work cattle. The first horses arrived in Hawai'i in The Hawaiian style of ranching originally included capturing wild cattle by driving them into pits dug in the forest floor.

Once tamed somewhat by hunger and thirst, they were hauled out up a steep ramp, and tied by their horns to the horns of a tame, older steer or ox that knew where the paddock with food and water was located.

Even today, traditional paniolo dress, as well as certain styles of Hawaiian formal attire, reflect the Spanish heritage of the vaquero.

Montauk, New York , on Long Island makes a somewhat debatable claim of having the oldest cattle operation in what today is the United States, having run cattle in the area since European settlers purchased land from the Indian people of the area in Ranching in Canada has traditionally been dominated by one province, Alberta.

The most successful early settlers of the province were the ranchers, who found Alberta's foothills to be ideal for raising cattle.

Most of Alberta's ranchers were English settlers, but cowboys such as John Ware —who brought the first cattle into the province in —were American.

The nearby city of Calgary became the centre of the Canadian cattle industry, earning it the nickname "Cowtown". The cattle industry is still extremely important to Alberta, and cattle outnumber people in the province.

While cattle ranches defined by barbed wire fences replaced the open range just as they did in the US, the cowboy influence lives on. Canada's first rodeo, the Raymond Stampede , was established in In , the Calgary Stampede began, and today it is the world's richest cash rodeo.

Each year, Calgary's northern rival Edmonton , Alberta stages the Canadian Finals Rodeo , and dozens of regional rodeos are held through the province.

In Australia , where ranches are known as stations , cowboys are known as stockmen and ringers, jackaroos and jillaroos who also do stockwork are trainee overseers and property managers.

The adaptation of both of these traditions to local needs created a unique Australian tradition, which also was strongly influenced by Australian indigenous people , whose knowledge played a key role in the success of cattle ranching in Australia's climate.

The idea of horse riders who guard herds of cattle, sheep or horses is common wherever wide, open land for grazing exists.

In the French Camargue , riders called " gardians " herd cattle and horses. The herders in the region of Maremma , in Tuscany Italy are called butteri singular: buttero.

The Asturian pastoral population is referred to as Vaqueiros de alzada. On the ranch, the cowboy is responsible for feeding the livestock, branding and earmarking cattle horses also are branded on many ranches , plus tending to animal injuries and other needs.

The working cowboy usually is in charge of a small group or "string" of horses and is required to routinely patrol the rangeland in all weather conditions checking for damaged fences, evidence of predation , water problems, and any other issue of concern.

They also move the livestock to different pasture locations, or herd them into corrals and onto trucks for transport. In addition, cowboys may do many other jobs, depending on the size of the "outfit" or ranch , the terrain , and the number of livestock.

On a smaller ranch with fewer cowboys—often just family members, cowboys are generalists who perform many all-around tasks; they repair fences, maintain ranch equipment, and perform other odd jobs.

On a very large ranch a "big outfit" , with many employees, cowboys are able to specialize on tasks solely related to cattle and horses.

Cowboys who train horses often specialize in this task only, and some may "Break" or train young horses for more than one ranch.

The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics collects no figures for cowboys, so the exact number of working cowboys is unknown. In addition to cowboys working on ranches, in stockyards, and as staff or competitors at rodeos , the category includes farmhands working with other types of livestock sheep , goats , hogs , chickens , etc.

Of those 9, workers, 3, are listed in the subcategory of Spectator sports which includes rodeos, circuses , and theaters needing livestock handlers.

Most cowboy attire, sometimes termed Western wear , grew out of practical need and the environment in which the cowboy worked. Most items were adapted from the Mexican vaqueros , though sources from other cultures, including Native Americans and Mountain Men contributed.

Many of these items show marked regional variations. Parameters such as hat brim width, or chap length and material were adjusted to accommodate the various environmental conditions encountered by working cowboys.

The traditional means of transport for the cowboy, even in the modern era, is by horseback. Horses can travel over terrain that vehicles cannot access.

Horses, along with mules and burros , also serve as pack animals. The most important horse on the ranch is the everyday working ranch horse that can perform a wide variety of tasks; horses trained to specialize exclusively in one set of skills such as roping or cutting are very rarely used on ranches.

Because the rider often needs to keep one hand free while working cattle, the horse must neck rein and have good cow sense —it must instinctively know how to anticipate and react to cattle.

A good stock horse is on the small side, generally under

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